A glossary of terms which commonly appear in Wuxia, Xianxia & Xuanhuan novels.
Table of Contents:
- Novel Categories
- Beings & Creatures
- World of Martial Arts
- Martial Arts
- Items & Weapons
- Units of Measurement
Wuxia (武俠 wǔxiá) – literally means “Martial Heroes”. Fictional stories about regular humans who can achieve supernatural fighting ability through Chinese martial arts training and internal energy cultivation. Themes of chivalry, tragedy, revenge & romance are common.
Xianxia (仙侠 xiānxiá) – literally means “Immortal Heroes”. Fictional stories featuring magic, demons, ghosts, immortals, and a great deal of Chinese folklore/mythology. Protagonists (usually) attempt to cultivate to Immortality, seeking eternal life and the pinnacle of strength. Heavily inspired by Daoism.
- Comparison: If Wuxia is “low fantasy”, then Xianxia is “high fantasy”.
Xuanhuan (玄幻 xuánhuàn) – literally means “Mysterious Fantasy”. A broad genre of fictional stories which remixes Chinese folklore/mythology with foreign elements & settings.
- Xuanhuan and Xianxia novels may sometimes seem similar on the surface. Look for the presence of Daoist elements (the Dao, Yin and Yang, Immortals, etc…) in the novel to easily distinguish the two – if they aren’t present, then it’s probably a Xuanhuan novel.
The Three Realms (三界 sānjiè) – the universe is divided into the Heaven Realm and the Earth Realm, with the Mortal Realm in between. The term is ultimately derived from the Three Realms of Hinduism & Buddhism, but these novels use it to refer to…
- The Heavens (天 tiān) – where the Jade Emperor rules at the head of the Celestial Court. Characters in several novels rebel against the Heavens to change their fate or to seek vengeance for perceived wrongs. Immortal cultivation is often (though not always) said to go against the Will of Heaven.
- The Mortal Realm (人界 rénjiè) (人间 rénjiān) – also called the human world. The setting of most of these novels, although some later branch out to explore the other realms.
- The Earth (地 dì) – contains the Underworld (地狱 dìyù) in its depths. The Underworld is also commonly called the Netherworld (冥界 míngjiè) or the Yellow Springs (黄泉 huángquán).
Six Paths of Reincarnation (六道轮回 liùdào lúnhuí) – in the cycle of reincarnation, it is possible to be reborn as either a  Deva,  Asura,  Human,  Animal,  Hungry Ghost or  a Tormented Being in Hell.
- Note: Devas & Asuras are reborn in the Heaven Realm, Humans & Animals are reborn in the Mortal Realm, and Hungry Ghosts & Hell-beings are reborn in the Earth Realm.
Karma (业 / 缘 / 因果 / 功德) – cosmic merit or demerit accumulated throughout one’s life based on one’s deeds. Determines which type of reincarnation (out of the Six Paths) they will experience in their next life. Some novels expand on this concept and have Karma affect even the daily lives of the characters or bind certain characters together through karmic ties/relationships.
Dao (道 dào) – the origin and source of all things. It can be translated in many different ways, including The Way / Road / Path / Method. According to Daoism, it is the absolute principle underlying the universe, combining within itself the principles of Yin and Yang and signifying the way, or code of behavior, that is in harmony with the natural order. In these novels, characters often try to gain insights into the Dao, which can give them supernatural powers or even control over aspects of the natural world.
Yin & Yang (阴阳 yīnyáng) – the duality present in all aspects of the universe. For instance: Yin is Female / Soft / Death / Dark / the Moon, while Yang is Male / Hard / Life / Light / the Sun – the comparisons are endless. Yin & Yang describe how opposite or contrary forces are actually complementary, interconnected, and interdependent in the natural world, and how they mutually give rise to each other.
Five Elements (五行 wǔxíng) – Wood (木 mù), Fire (火 huǒ), Earth (土 tǔ), Metal (金 jīn), & Water (水 shuǐ). The fundamental elements which compose everything in the universe. They have a detailed cyclic relationship, and each of them have several symbolic meanings. Somewhat analogous to the Western Four Elements.
Qi (气) – the vital energy which exists in all things. The cultivation of Qi is a major theme in Wuxia, Xianxia & Xuanhuan novels.
- Qi is sometimes written as “Ki” or “Chi”. It can be translated in many different ways, including Breath / Vital Breath / Pneuma / Vital Energy / Spiritual Energy. (etc…)
- Spiritual Energy of Heaven and Earth (天地之气 tiāndì zhī qì) – the natural energy of the world.
Beings & Creatures
Gods (神 shén) – supernatural beings of tremendous power. In Xuanhuan novels, it’s often possible to attain some form of godhood through cultivation.
Immortals (仙 xiān) – beings who ascended to Immortality through Daoist cultivation practices. They have magical powers, can fly freely through the air, and have a close connection to the Dao and the natural world. There are several types of Daoist Immortals, such as the Celestial Immortals (天仙) and Earth Immortals (地仙).
- More information here.
Saints (圣 shèng) – similar to, but distinct from Immortals. They don’t have a strong relation to Daoism, and they may not necessarily have eternal life. But other than that, they typically also have a close connection to the natural world and similar magical powers achieved through cultivation. Very generally speaking, Saints appear more often in Xuanhuan novels while Immortals appear more often in Xianxia novels.
- Note: Unless explicitly stated otherwise, these are not the Christian Saints.
Magical Beasts (魔兽 móshòu) – animals capable of cultivation. Some are innately magical and simply grow stronger over time, while others must actively practice a cultivation method. They tend to be much more intelligent than mundane animals, and some are capable of speaking in human languages. Magical Beasts which have reached a high stage of cultivation may even be able to take on a human form.
- These Beasts often possess a Core (魔核 / 妖核) within their bodies which contains their essence and/or cultivation base. Cultivators highly prize them. The Cores are generally either consumed by cultivators (to grow stronger) or used in the production of magical items. More information here.
- Beast Cores are also sometimes called Neidan (內丹), which can be translated more literally as “Internal Pellet”.
- Some novels give the Beasts slightly varying names such as Demonic Beasts (妖兽) or Spirit Beasts (灵兽), but they’re all essentially the same sort of creature. The names of the Cores vary similarly.
Demons (妖 yāo) – sometimes left untranslated as “Yao” or alternatively translated as Monsters. Born when an animal, plant, or even an inanimate object absorbs spiritual energy over a long period of time and then gains spiritual awareness. Not inherently evil, although many have antagonistic relationships with humans.
Devils (魔 mó) – sometimes left untranslated as “Mo” or alternatively translated as Fiends. Evil spirits/creatures of remarkable power and cruelty. Similar to the demons and devils of Western mythology. In some novels, evil cultivators emulate them by practicing devilish cultivation methods and committing atrocities in their pursuit of power.
- Some novels consider Demons and Devils to be a single species (妖魔 Yaomo), others as distinct species (妖族 Yao race / 魔族 Mo race).
- 魔 is sometimes translated as “Demon”, which can be confusing at times (particularly when 妖 is also used in the novel). The difference between the two is explained here.
World of Martial Arts
Jianghu (江湖 jiānghú) – literally translates as “Rivers and Lakes”, but figuratively refers to the “Martial World” or the “underground world of martial arts”. A section of society consisting of martial artists, gangsters, thieves, beggars, prostitutes, merchants, entertainers, and anyone else wanting to operate outside of mainstream society or in the grey area of the law.
- Wulin (武林 wǔlín) – literally “Martial Forest”, figuratively refers to the “community of martial artists” within the Jianghu. The Wulin is typically controlled by an alliance formed by the Righteous/Orthodox sects in order to uphold justice.
- The martial sects of the Jianghu are often divided into two main factions – commonly called the Orthodox & Unorthodox (黑白) factions or the Righteous & Evil (正邪) factions.
Xia (侠 xiá) – a Hero of the martial world. Righteous, skilled martial artists who follow their own moral code. They sometimes come into conflict with the law, especially in novels where society or the government is depicted as corrupt.
- Wandering Xia (游侠 yóuxiá) – vagrant martial artists who protect the innocent and use their strength to correct injustices. Seen as champions of the common people. Similar to the romanticized European Knights-errant, but without any of the feudal overtones.
Cultivation World (修真界 xiūzhēn jiè) – not literally a separate world, but rather refers to the broad community of cultivators and their sects/schools/clans/etc… Analogous to the Wulin of martial artists.
Cultivator (修者 xiūzhě) (修士 xiūshì) (修仙者 xiūxiānzhě) – a person who trains in martial & mystical arts, generally in order to become powerful and increase their longevity. Meditation and the cultivation of Qi are common practices among cultivators.
- Rogue Cultivators (散修 sǎnxiū) – literally translates as “Loose Cultivators”. Independent cultivators unaffiliated with any sect, clan, or other martial organizations.
- Devil Cultivators (修魔者 xiūmózhě) – also translated as Demon Cultivators. Wicked cultivators who emulate Devils (魔) and seek power by any means necessary. They are often said to follow the Devil Path / Devil Dao (魔道), in opposition to the orthodox Immortal Cultivators (修仙者 xiūxiānzhě).
Sect (宗 zōng) (派 pài) – an organization dedicated to the practice of cultivation and/or martial arts. Typically led by a Sect Leader (掌门) or Patriarch (老祖). With the help of Sect Elders (老), they instruct Disciples (弟子) in the proper methods of cultivation or training in the martial arts styles of the Sect. The Disciples live in the Sect, which provides for their daily needs. There is practically always a strict hierarchy amongst members of a Sect, and respect for the elder generations is demanded.
- In some novels, the common Disciples are divided into another hierarchy of Core Disciples (核心弟子), Inner Disciples (内门弟子), and Outer Disciples (外围弟子) – based on their level of talent and meritorious service to the Sect. Disciples higher on the hierarchy have greater status and receive more resources from the Sect.
- Religious Sect (教 jiào) – a sect with a strong religious background. If the religion being practiced is evil, then this term is translated as a Cult. Commonly seen in Wuxia novels.
School (门 mén) – a school of cultivation or martial arts. Doesn’t differ much from a Sect.
Clan (家 jiā) – an extended family related by blood, sharing a surname. They often pass down heirlooms from generation to generation along with secret cultivation methods & martial arts styles which were developed by the clan’s ancestors. They tend to guard these jealously from outsiders.
Association (帮 bāng) – also translated as a Union, Gang, Clan, or Brotherhood. A loose organization of people. The members may have something in common, like sharing a particular way of life, or they may simply be working together towards a mutually beneficial goal. Not religious in nature.
Society (會 huì) – a secret society. Similar to Associations for the most part, but cloaked in secrecy and deeply involved in rituals/traditions. Sometimes religious or cult-like in nature.
Escort Agency (镖局 biāojú) – a protection agency for hire. Escorts (镖人 / 镖师 / 镖客) typically work as bodyguards for travelers and merchant caravans. Commonly seen in Wuxia novels.
Martial Arts Terms
Martial Arts (武功 wǔgōng) – fighting styles & techniques. Also includes physical exercises, methods of mental discipline, and more. Chinese martial arts are commonly referred to as Kung Fu (功夫) or Wushu (武术).
- External Martial Arts (外家 wàijiā) – martial arts styles characterized by fast and explosive movements. They focus on the cultivation of physical strength and agility.
- Internal Martial Arts (内家 nèijiā) – martial arts styles characterized by soft and flowing movements. They focus on the cultivation of the mind, spirit and Qi.
- Hard & Soft (硬 yìng / 柔 róu) – terms used to describe how a martial artist counters the attacks of an opponent. Practitioners of “Hard” styles meet force with force, directly countering the opponent and seeking to overwhelm them with sheer power. Practitioners of “Soft” styles counter the opponent indirectly, by dodging or deflecting the attacks and seeking to take advantage of openings.
Internal Energy (内力 nèilì) (內劲 nèijìn) – also called Inner Energy, Internal Strength, Internal Power, or Internal Force. The cultivated energy within a martial artist’s body. Utilizing it, a martial artist can accomplish superhuman feats of speed, agility, strength, endurance, etc… It can even be used to heal wounds and nullify poisons.
Lightness Skill (轻功 qīnggōng) – often left untranslated as “Qinggong”. The ability to lighten the body and move with great agility & swiftness. At high proficiency, practitioners of this skill can run across water, leap to the top of trees, or even glide through the air.
Striking the Meridians / Acupoints (点脉 diǎnmài) (点穴 diǎnxué) – often left untranslated as “Dianmai” and “Dianxue”. Also known as “Hitting / Sealing Pressure Points“. Fighting techniques which target the opponent’s meridians and acupoints in order to kill, cripple, immobilize, or control the opponent. More information here.
Cultivation (修炼 xiūliàn) (修真 xiūzhēn) (修行 xiūxíng) (修仙 xiūxiān) – the process of improving health, increasing longevity, and growing powerful. This is accomplished by cultivating Qi and training in martial & mystical arts. In many of these novels, the ultimate goal of cultivation is to become an Immortal or attain godhood.
Cultivation Method (功法 gōngfǎ) (心法 xīnfǎ) – a mystical art or collection of techniques which cultivators practice in order to cultivate. Related: Qigong (气功)
Cultivation Base (修为 xiūwéi) – the amount or capacity of refined Qi possessed by a cultivator.
Manual (秘笈 mìjí) – a book containing detailed instructions on training in a cultivation method or martial arts style. Usually regarded as extremely valuable and thus kept secret (or at least, not made publicly available).
- Sutras & Scriptures (经 jīng) – sacred writings. In the context of these novels, they typically pertain to cultivation or martial arts. Used more or less interchangeably with “Manual”.
Spiritual Roots (灵根 línggēn) – figuratively, the very foundation (roots) of one’s body and soul. Associated with a person’s innate talent and elemental affinities.
- Cultivation usually requires some minimum level of innate talent, and many people find it impossible to even take the first step. In some novels, the quality of a person’s Spiritual Roots can be tested to determine if they have the talent necessary to cultivate. Rare individuals may even have special Spiritual Roots which allow them to cultivate quickly or grant them other benefits. For example, someone with “fire spiritual roots” might learn fire spells more easily than their peers.
Dantian (丹田 dāntián) – literally translates as “Cinnabar Field” or “Elixir Field”. Refers to the region in the body where a person’s Qi is concentrated. There are technically three dantians, but these novels simplify the concept and only use the lower dantian (located three finger widths below and two finger widths behind the navel).
- Eight Extraordinary Meridians (奇经八脉 qí jīng bā mài) – act as reservoirs or pathways for the circulation of Qi. Of the Eight Extraordinary Meridians, the Governing Vessel (督脈) and Conception Vessel (任脈) are mentioned in these novels most frequently. The Governing Vessel runs from the dantian (in the lower abdomen) up along the spine to the head. The Conception Vessel runs from the dantian up the front of the body to the head, where it connects with the Governing Vessel to form a complete circuit.
- Twelve Principal Meridians (正经十二脉 zhèngjīng shí’èr mài) – meridians associated with the internal organs.
- Acupoints (穴 xué) – “acupuncture points”, related to pressure points. There are several hundred of them on the body, mostly located along the meridians. Knowledge of acupoints can be used in healing (through acupuncture or similar practices) or in combat by deliberately striking them to achieve certain effects.
Qi Circulation (行气 xíngqì) – the act of controlling Qi to flow from the dantian, through the meridians, and back into the dantian in a cycle. The purpose of this varies between novels, but usually it helps replenish stamina, purify the Qi, or strengthen the meridians.
Breathing Exercises (吐纳 tùnà) – also known as Tu Na Breathing. A special way of breathing which expels the turbid Qi within the body and draws in the Qi of the natural world. An essential part of cultivation.
- Embryonic Breathing (胎息 tāixī) – also known as Taixi or Fetal Breathing. A form of breathing without using one’s nose and mouth. Instead, the practitioner might breathe through their pores or dantian (for example). This is generally considered to be a highly-advanced Breathing Exercise which grants mystical benefits and brings the practitioner closer to nature. Often compared to how babies breathe in the womb (through the umbilical cord).
Meditation (冥想 míngxiǎng) – a practice for training or calming the mind and spirit. Cultivators spend a great deal of time in meditation, as both the cultivation of Qi and contemplation of Insights generally require it.
- Lotus Position (盘膝 pánxī) – sitting in a cross-legged meditative position.
- Closed Door Training (闭关 bìguān) – also called Closed Door Meditation or Closed Door Cultivation. Training done in seclusion, usually to focus on breaking through a bottleneck or to avoid becoming distracted at a crucial moment and suffering a backlash as a result.
Insight (参悟 cānwù) (顿悟 dùnwù) – related to enlightenment. Cultivators usually gain insights by meditating, engaging in life-or-death battles, or going out into the world to experience new things. These insights are often needed in order to master techniques or advance to higher stages of cultivation.
Internal Demons (心魔 xīnmó) – literally translates as “Heart Devils”. Rather than standard demons or devils, these are a practitioner’s negative emotions and other mental barriers which hinder their training/cultivation. Internal Demons, in some cases, can even attack the practitioner from the inside, and failure to adequately resist them may result in Qi Deviation.
Qi Deviation (走火入魔 zǒuhuǒ rùmó) – also known as Qigong Deviation. Literally translates as “to catch fire and be entered [possessed] by devils”. A state wherein the cultivation base becomes dangerously unstable, causing internal damage to the body and symptoms of psychosis. People who succumb to their Internal Demons, who practice cultivation/martial arts incorrectly, or who rashly use forbidden arts are all at risk of falling into this state.
Bottleneck (瓶颈 píngjǐng) – the term for when cultivators figuratively hit a wall in their training and it suddenly becomes incredibly difficult to proceed. When they reach a bottleneck, cultivators may require new Insights, the aid of medicinal pills, or even harsher training in order to make a Breakthrough (突破 tūpò) and successfully bypass the bottleneck.
Impurities (杂质 zázhì) – usually described as a smelly, black substance which is secreted from a cultivator’s skin when they reach new cultivation stages or consume special medicinal pills. The result of the body purifying itself and expelling the waste.
Ranks / Levels / Layers (级 jí) (层 céng) – a common way to quantify martial power or the progress made in cultivation. In many cases (although not all) where these are used, there are 9 ranks/levels/layers to each stage of cultivation, with rank 1 being the start and rank 9 being the peak. After breaking through to the next stage, the practitioner starts at rank 1 of that new stage. The number 9 has a great deal of symbolism.
- Another set of commonly used terms are Early-stage (初期), Middle-stage (中期), Late-stage (后期) & Peak (巅峰). For example, someone might be a “late-stage Core Formation expert” or they could be at “the peak of the Nascent Soul stage”.
- A half step to __ (半步__境) – refers to someone who’s infinitely close to breaking through to the next stage of cultivation, but hasn’t achieved it yet. For example, someone who’s “a half step to Foundation Establishment” is still technically at the Qi Condensation stage, but they’re only a hair’s breadth away from Foundation Establishment.
Houtian & Xiantian (后天 hòutiān / 先天 xiāntiān) – the names of two cultivation stages which appear in several novels, with the Houtian stage preceding the Xiantian stage. Houtian can mean Posterior Heaven / Postcelestial / Acquired. Xiantian can mean Anterior Heaven / Precelestial / Innate. Very roughly, the idea is that something “Xiantian” is primordial and thus close to the Dao, while something “Houtian” is degraded or further away from the Dao.
- “Houtian & Xiantian” are derived from Daoism and Internal Alchemy. There’s a belief that people are born with a small amount of Xiantian treasures (Essence, Qi and Spirit). By practicing Daoist cultivation and internal alchemy, they can absorb and refine the Houtian Qi of the natural world to steadily increase their supply of Xiantian treasures (which grant health and longevity benefits).
- Read more about it here (pages 19-20) and here.
Qi Condensation (凝气 níngqì) – also known as Qi Refining (炼气 liànqì) or Qi Gathering (聚气 jùqì). An initial stage of cultivation which involves absorbing Qi from the natural world and refining it inside the body.
Foundation Establishment (筑基 zhùjī) – also translated as Foundation Building. The stage after Qi Condensation. Once a cultivator’s Qi crosses a certain threshold (in the volume and/or density of the Qi), they’ll be able to breakthrough to this stage.
- This term is derived from Internal Alchemy. Read more about it here. (page 25- onward)
Core Formation (结丹 jiēdān) – sometimes left untranslated as “Jiedan”. The stage after Foundation Establishment. It involves forming a Golden Core (金丹 jīndān) by using the Dantian as a crucible and the Cultivation Base as raw material.
- The Gold Core is sometimes left untranslated as “Jindan” or is more literally translated as Golden Pellet. In scholarly articles on Chinese internal alchemy, it is translated as the “Golden Elixir“. It is somewhat analogous to the Philosopher’s Stone of Western alchemy, although there are many differences between the two.
- More information here.
Nascent Soul (元婴 yuányīng) – sometimes left untranslated as “Yuanying”. Literally translates as “Origin Infant”. The stage after Core Formation (in some novels). The Nascent Soul resembles an infant or miniature person and resides in the Dantian, typically sitting in a meditative position. In some novels, the Nascent Soul can travel outside the body and is like a second life for cultivators – if their main body dies, their consciousness can continue to exist in the Nascent Soul.
Immortal Ascension (成仙 chéngxiān) – also known as Apotheosis. The stage wherein the cultivator becomes a Daoist Immortal. There are many differences between novels, but usually the cultivation/maturation of the Golden Core or Nascent Soul plays a key role in ascending to Immortality.
Alchemy (丹道 dāndào) (外丹 wàidān) – the refining of plants, minerals, and other substances into medicinal pills & elixirs. In these novels, Alchemists (丹师) are essentially pharmacists who work with magical materials and make miracle drugs.
Medicinal Pills & Elixirs (丹药 dānyào) – miracle drugs which can have all sorts of effects. Often taken to boost cultivation, heal wounds, cure poisons, purify or strengthen the body, and much much more.
Medicinal Plants / Herbs (药草 yàocǎo) – a generic term for any kind of plant which can be used by alchemists to make poisons or medicinal pills & elixirs. Older medicinal plants (100-year, 1000-year, etc…) are generally considered to be more potent.
- Ginseng (参) & Lingzhi Mushrooms (灵芝) appear quite often in these novels, where they’re claimed to have great medicinal qualities.
Spiritual Plants / Herbs (灵草 língcǎo) – also called Spirit Grass. A magic plant which has absorbed spiritual energy from the natural world and is highly sought after by both cultivators and alchemists alike. Usually either eaten to absorb the spiritual energy it contains or refined into spirit medicines.
Items & Weapons
Magic Treasures (法宝 fǎbǎo) – also translated as Magical Items. A generic term which encompasses all of the magic weapons/clothing/trinkets/talismans/etc… which cultivators make and use.
- Magic Tools (法器 fǎqì) & Spirit Tools (灵器 língqì) – terms which are almost interchangeable with “Magic Treasures”.
Spirit Stones (灵石 língshí) – translucent crystals with spiritual energy trapped within. Mainly used as currency amongst cultivators. They can also be used to cultivate (by absorbing the spiritual energy), create magical items, or power spell formations.
Flying Sword (飞剑 fēijiàn) – a magic sword which can fly through the air and can be directed to engage in long-range attacks. Perhaps the most iconic cultivator weapon. In some novels, cultivators stand atop their flying swords and ride them as a form of transportation.
Interspatial Ring (空间戒指 kōngjiān jièzhi) – a magic ring with a pocket dimension inside it. With a mere thought, the owner can store items inside it and retrieve them at will. Depending on the novel, there may be some restrictions – for example, the size of the storage space might be limited or the ring might only be capable of storing certain types of items.
- Storage Treasures (储物法宝 chǔwù fǎbǎo) – a generic term for items similar in function to Interspatial Rings. Some novels, for example, may have Bags, Belts, Gourds, and other objects which also have magical storage spaces inside them.
Talisman (符 fú) – sometimes translated as a Seal. A strip of paper with mystical diagrams & calligraphy drawn on it. In these novels, they’re essentially consumable spells. (When activated, they cast a spell and will disintegrate once their magic is depleted.)
Jade Slip (玉简 yùjiǎn) – a long, narrow strip of jade used as a magical item. A cultivator can magically store information inside it, and other cultivators can then use that Jade Slip to directly transmit the stored information into their minds. Based on the Bamboo Slips used in ancient China.
The Four Major Weapons:
- Sword (剑 jiàn) – a double-edged, straight sword. The weapon of choice for many, many characters in these novels.
- Saber (刀 dāo) – a single-edged, curved saber. Heavier and considered somewhat brutish in comparison to the elegant Sword.
- Spear (枪 qiāng) – a spear, often with a leaf-shaped spearhead and a tassel lashed just beneath it.
- Staff (棍 gùn) – a staff made from wood or iron.
Hidden Weapons (暗器 ànqì) – weapons that are concealed in some way (often hidden in the owner’s clothing). Their use and effectiveness relies heavily on the element of surprise. Poisoned projectiles (darts/needles/etc) are an especially popular type of hidden weapon. But in the hands of a hidden weapons expert, almost anything can be lethal – in Wuxia novels, even things like abaci, coins, chopsticks, and musical instruments are used as hidden weapons.
A partial list of weapons which may be unfamiliar to new readers:
|Duster / Fly Whisk / Horsetail Whisk (拂尘)||Fan (扇)||Ribbon (丝带)|
|Ruyi Scepter (如意)||Loom Shuttle (梭)||Wheels (轮)|
|Ruler (尺)||Seal (印)||Awl (锥)|
|Butterfly Knives (蝴蝶双刀)||Judge’s Brush (判官笔)||Crutches (柺)|
|Flying Guillotine (血滴子)||Flying Claw (飞爪)||Flying Daggers (飞刀)|
|Emei Piercers (峨嵋刺)||Rope Dart (绳镖)||Sleeve Arrow (袖箭)|
|Three Section Staff (三节棍)||Monk’s Spade (月牙铲)||Hoop / Ring (环)|
|Nine Section Whip (九节鞭)||Snake Lance (蛇矛)||Hook Swords (钩)|
|Glaive / Guandao (关刀)||Meteor Hammer (流星锤)||Wolf-tooth Club (狼牙棒)|
|Horse-chopping Saber (斩马刀)||Nine-ringed Saber (九环刀)||Dagger-axe (戈)|
Heavenly Tribulation (天劫 tiānjié) (重劫 zhòngjié) – in some novels, a trial encountered by cultivators at key points in their cultivation, which they must resist and ultimately transcend. Because immortal cultivation (generally) goes against the Will of Heaven, the Heavens will send down tribulations to oppress high-level cultivators who make progress towards Immortality, often right when they enter a new cultivation stage. This typically takes the form of a lightning storm, with extraordinarily powerful bolts of lightning raining down from the Heavens to strike at the cultivator.
Eight Trigrams (八卦 bāguà) – often left untranslated as the “Bagua”. Thought to represent the fundamental principles of reality. In real life, it’s used in fortune-telling. In these novels, it’s mainly only mentioned in passing. For example, a battle formation or martial arts move might have the “Eight Trigrams” in its name
Feng Shui (风水 fēngshuǐ) – literally translates as “Wind Water”. A form of traditional Chinese divination/fortune-telling, often performed using the Eight Trigrams and a Feng Shui compass (罗盘 luópán). In these novels, it’s mainly only mentioned in passing.
Formations (阵 zhèn) (阵法 zhènfǎ) – divided into battle formations and spell formations, although they are often just called “formations”. Battle formations are “fantasy-fied” tactical formations used by several cultivators or martial artists attacking in concert. Spell formations are also called Arrays. They’re essentially magic circles which cast a continuous area-of-effect spell on the location the formation encompasses.
- Formation Flags (阵旗 zhènqí) – magical flags set up at key points in order to activate a spell formation (usually around the perimeter).
- Restrictions (禁制 jìnzhì) (禁法 jìnfǎ) – also translated as Seals, Restrictive Spells, or Spell Restrictions. Somewhat similar to formations. They are spells which form a barrier around a location or act to seal/suppress a person or object.
Spiritual Sense (灵识 língshí) – also known as “Consciousness” or Divine Sense (神识 shénshí). An ability possessed by cultivators to scan their surroundings (far beyond the limits of their ordinary 5 senses) with their spirit. The distance/total area they can scan corresponds to the strength of their spirit. Also used in some novels to remotely control magical items such as Flying Swords.
Essence (精 jīng) – often called Blood Essence (精血). It’s basically “lifeblood” or “life force”. Powerful techniques sometimes require cultivators to expend their Essence, shortening their lifespan as a result.
Robes (袍 páo) – the characters in these novels usually wear robes, as was the norm in ancient China. Cultivators are often said to wear Scholar / Daoist robes (道袍). Martial artists are frequently depicted wearing Tang suits (唐装).
Face (面子 miànzi) – a person’s reputation in society and amongst their peers. If someone “has face” (有面子), they have a good reputation. If they “have no face” (没面子), then they have a bad reputation. “Giving face” (给面子) to someone means to defer to or pay homage to them. “Losing face” (丢脸) means that a person has hurt their reputation. “Not wanting face” (不要脸) means that a person is acting shamelessly, in a way that suggests they don’t care about hurting their reputation.
Kowtow (叩头 kòutóu) – an act of deep respect shown by prostration. The highest sign of reverence in Chinese culture. It involves kneeling and bowing so low as to have one’s head touching the ground. The person kowtowing may also knock their head repeatedly against the ground (to the point of injury), especially when they’re desperately pleading for something or wish to show their utmost sincerity.
Clasped Hands (抱拳 bàoquán) (拱手 gǒngshǒu) – also translated as Cupped Fist or Cupped Hands. A respectful salute or greeting.
- The Baoquan (抱拳) is a salute which originated among martial artists. The Gongshou (拱手) is a salute commonly used by Chinese people in general.
Pagoda (塔 tǎ) – a tiered tower with multiple, prominent eaves. Often has a religious function or is considered sacred.
Immortal’s Cave (洞府 dòngfǔ) – also translated as Cave Estate or Immortal Estate. The abode of a cultivator. Often high up in the mountains in a cave where spiritual energy is abundant. Similar to a Grotto (洞天).
Fairy (仙女 xiānnǚ) (仙子 xiānzǐ) – a term used to describe a woman of otherworldly beauty.
- Note: Not to be confused with the Western concept of Fairies.
Lotus Flower (莲花 liánhuā) – symbolizes purity & enlightenment in Chinese culture. Appears quite often in these novels.
Jade (玉 yù) – a type of gemstone that was more valuable than gold in Ancient China. It was even thought to have mystical powers/properties and to be associated with the soul and immortality. In cultivation novels, magical items are often made from jade. And anything beautiful, refined, or lustrous is commonly described as being “Jade-like”.
- Jade comes in two types: Jadeite and Nephrite. Jadeite is usually a vivid green color, and this is what Westerners are more familiar with. Nephrite comes in many colors, one of which is a creamy white. This white jade is called “mutton-fat jade” (羊脂玉) by the Chinese, and they consider it to be the most valuable kind of jade.
Incense (香 xiāng) – aromatic material which releases fragrant smoke when burned. Used in religious ceremonies, to aid in meditation, and in many other cultural activities. Incense Sticks (or Joss Sticks) are frequently mentioned in these novels.
- “The time it takes an incense stick to burn” is a common phrase which refers to a short time period – generally around either 5 or 30 minutes. Other ancient Chinese time measurements can be found here.
Sword-light (剑光 jiànguāng) – also translated as a Sword Ray. A dazzling, powerful energy attack released from the edge of a blade. Forming Swordlight generally requires a profound cultivation base and a deep mastery of swordsmanship.
- Sword Energy (剑气 jianqi) is basically the same as Swordlight.
Refining (炼 liàn) – a term which appears extremely frequently. Cultivators sometimes seem obsessed with refining just about everything – pills, treasures, Qi, and even themselves! This stems from Chinese alchemy, where it was believed that materials which underwent multiple refinements would gain spiritual value and slowly grow closer to the Dao and perfection.
Killing Intent (煞气 shàqì) – a murderous aura which emits from a person when they desire to harm someone. People who have experienced bloody battles and/or have already killed others tend to have much stronger Killing Intent than an ordinary person. Experts may be able to disguise their Killing Intent, as well as intentionally release it as a form of mental attack.
Sword Intent (剑意 jiànyì) – somewhat similar to Killing Intent. A dangerous aura emitted from a sword or master swordsman which causes others to feel as if they’re about to be cut by a sword. In some novels, experts can even create physical manifestations (consisting of energy and their knowledge of sword-arts) with their Sword Intent, and this can be used to attack their foes.
Units of Measurement
|Shi Chen||時辰||Time||2 hours||“Double-hour“, aka “Chinese hour”|
|Wen||文||Money||0.001 taels of silver||aka “Copper-cash“, (see below)|
|Jin||斤||Mass||500 grams||“Catty“, = 16 Taels|
|Cun||市寸||Length||3 ⅓ cm||aka “Chinese inch“|
|Chi||市尺||Length||33 ⅓ cm||aka “Chinese foot“, = 10 Cun|
|Zhang||市丈||Length||3 ⅓ meters||= 10 Chi|
|Li||市里||Length||500 meters||aka “Chinese mile“, = 1500 Chi|
|Mu||亩||Area||666 ⅔ meters²||aka “Chinese acre”, = 60 Zhang²|